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2014年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题及答案解析
添加时间:2014/1/5  来源:思远福大考研网  浏览数:2118
 
Section I Use of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)
As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can’t remember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’s name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, we refer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___ seemingly innocent ,this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___.
       Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’s actually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mental effort.
Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “brain training program” designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental ___14___.
The Web-based program ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.
1.     [A]where               [B]when               [C]that                 [D]why
2. [A]improves          [B]fades                [C]recovers           [D]collapses
3. [A]If                            [B]Unless             [C]Once               [D]While
4. [A]uneven             [B]limited             [C]damaging         [D]obscure
5. [A]wellbeing         [B]environment    [C]relationship      [D]outlook
6. [A]turns                [B]finds                [C]points                     [D]figures
7. [A]roundabouts    [B]responses         [C]workouts         [D]associations
8. [A]genre               [B]functions         [C]circumstances  [D]criterion
9. [A]channel            [B]condition         [C]sequence          [D]process
10. [A]persist            [B]believe             [C]excel                [D]feature
11. [A] Therefore           [B] Moreover        [C] Otherwise            [D] However
12. [A]according to   [B]regardless of     [C]apart from        [D]instead of
13. [A]back               [B]further             [C]aside                [D]around
14. [A]sharpness        [B]stability           [C]framework              [D]flexibility
15. [A]forces            [B]reminds           [C]hurries             [D]allows
16. [A]hold               [B]track                [C]order                [D]pace
17. [A]to                   [B]with                [C]for                   [D]on
18. [A]irregularly             [B]habitually        [C]constantly        [D]unusually
19. [A]carry               [B]put                  [C]build                [D]take
20. [A]risky               [B]effective          [C]idle                  [D]familiar
SectionⅡReading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Text1
In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency” George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the job centre with a CV, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?
 More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” Help?  Really?  On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidizes laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”— protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.
  Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the job centre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborne land, your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU. 
21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to
[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.
22. The phrase, “to sign on” (Line 3, Para.2) most probably means
[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the job centre.
[B]to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.
[C]to register for an allowance from the government.
[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.
23. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]A desire to secure a better life for all.
[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.
[D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel
[A]uneasy
[B]enraged.
[C]insulted.
[D]guilty.
25. To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
 
Text 2
All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare. 
There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that many cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, and that they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to
do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.
The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to
[A]the growing demand from clients.
[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect of working in big firms.
[D]the attraction of financial rewards.
27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving training by professional associations.
28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.
[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.
29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive”partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.
30.In this text, the author mainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.
Text 3
The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobles, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led  research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research.
As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobles were, of course, themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.
31. The Fundamental Physics Prize is seen as
[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’ wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prizes.
[C]an example of bankers’ investments.
[D]a handsome reward for researchers.
32. The critics think that the new awards will most benefit
[A]the profit-oriented scientists.
[B]the founders of the new awards.
[C]the achievement-based system.
[D]peer-review-led research.
33. The discovery of the Higgs boson is atypical case which involves
[A]controversies over the recipients’status.
[B]the joint effort of modern researchers.
[C]legitimate concerns over the new prizes.
[D]the demonstration of research findings.
34. According to Paragraph 4,which of the following is true of the Nobles?
[A]Their endurance has done justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.
[C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them.
35.The author believes that the now awards are
[A]acceptable despite the criticism.
[B]harmful to the culture of research.
[C]subject to undesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of public attention.
Text 4
“The Heart of the Matter,” the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report’s failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.
In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by“federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others” to “maintain national excellence inhumanities and social scientific scholarship and education.” In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission’s 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students’ ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs.
Unfortunately, despite 2½ years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don’t know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing “progressive,” or left-liberal propaganda.
Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets and self-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.
The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
[A] Critical
[B] Appreciative
[C] Contemptuous
[D] Tolerant
37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to
[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education
[B] define the government’s role in education
[C] keep a leading position in liberal education
[D] safeguard individuals’ rights to education
38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests
[A] an exclusive study of American history
[B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects
[C] the application of emerging technologies
[D] funding for the study of foreign languages
39. The author implies in Paragraph 5 that professors are
[A] supportive of free markets
[B] cautious about intellectual investigation
[C] conservative about public policy
[D] biased against classical liberal ideas
40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Ways to Grasp “The Heart of the Matter”
[B] Illiberal Education and “The Heart of the Matter”
[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education
[D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education
Part B
Directions:
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs And E have been correctly placed Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the1970s.
[B]In another case, American archaeologists René Million and George Cow gill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD500 and 850, when Copan collapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evan combed antique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evans’s interpretations of these engravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knossós) on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.
41.  →  →42.  →   →43.  → 44.  →45.   
Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
    Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
    Beethoven’importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
    This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
    Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
    Beethoven’music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Erotica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
 
Section Ⅲ Writing
Part A
51. Directions:
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university,suggesting how to improve students’physical condition.
You should include the details you think necessary.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Part B
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) interpret its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)
参考答案
 Section I Use of English
  1、【答案】A where
  【解析】本句的句义是:我们突然不能回忆起刚才把钥匙放在哪里了,或者一个老熟人的姓名,或者是一个老乐队的名称。这根据句义,这里是表示忘记了钥匙所放在的地点,where 作为宾语从句的引导词,和后面的部分一起,作为remember的宾语,因此正确答案为A。B、when 引导表示时间的状语从句,C、that放在这里不合适,DWhy引导表示原因的状语从句。B、C、D均不符合题意。
  2、【答案】B fades
  【解析】本句的句义是:本句的句义是关于大脑的退化,我们婉转地把它称作"老年时分"(老年人的瞬间记忆丧失)。从前文可以看出,文章讲的是随着年龄增长,记忆力的衰退。由语境确定B。fade away是一个固定搭配,表示消失、衰弱、消退、消歇。A. Improve 表示提高;C. recover表示恢复、D. collapse表示崩塌。A、C、D均不符合题意。
  3、【答案】B while
  【解析】本句的句义是:这看起来问题不大,但精神集中能力的丧失,对于我们的职业生涯,社会交往以及个人生活都能产生有害影响。这个空在句首,需要填一个连接词,看起来问题不大和后面的内容之间存在转折关系,因此正确答案为B。A选项unless表示让步关系;C选项Once作为连词表示条件关系,表示一……就;D选项也是条件关系。A、C、D均不符合题意。
  4、【答案】A damaging
  【解析】本句的句义同第3题。通过整篇文章语境,我们可以看出注意力的丧失会对我们造成不好的影响,造成损害,因此正确答案是damaging,表示损害。B选项limited表示有限,局限性;C选项uneven表示不均匀,奇数;D选项obscure表示晦涩的不清楚的。B、C、D均不符合题意。
  5、【答案】C well-being
  【解析】本句的句义同第3题。这里需要填入的是表示个人生活状态的词,因此well-being符合题意,表示个人的幸福。A选项relationship表示关系,B选项environment表示环境;D、outlook表示外表,A、B、D均不符合题意。
  6、【答案】D turn
  【解析】It代表神经科学,它的结果是,大脑也跟我们的肌肉一样,也需要进行锻炼…… 这里给出的是神经科学的结论,因此选择turn out。figure out 表示计算出来,find out表示找到问题的解决办法,point out表示指出来。A、B、C选项均不符合题意。
  7、【答案】C workout
  【解析】……适当的精神训练能够明显改善我们的基本认知……。Workout 有锻炼练习的意思,符合题意,因此正确答案为C。response表示反应,roundabout有迂回的意思,association表示关系,关联。A、B、D选项带入题干均不符合题意。
  8、【答案】D functions
  【解析】……适当的精神训练能够改善我们基本的认知……,根据语境和段落大意可以判断出,这里表示人脑的基本的认知功能。A genre 表示类型和种类,B criterion表示标准,C circumstances表示环境和情况。A、B、C均不符合题意。
  9、【答案】C process
  【解析】本句句意,思考是大脑中的神经连接____。根据常识,思考是一个过程,并且通过脑神经相互接触来完成,其他选项A channel 渠道、sequence 序列、condition条件,均不符合常识。因此正确答案是表示过程的C选项。
  10、【答案】B excel
  【解析】本句句意,在某种程度来讲,我们在进行神经连接(直接影响人的聪明程度)方面的_____能力是与生俱来的。Excel 有超过擅长的意思,表示在某个方面出众,放在此处表示突出的、特殊的能力,符合题意,从结构来说,to ___in doing sth,这里需要填入的是一个动词原形,因此正确答案为B。A选项 feature表示特征, C选项persist 表示坚持、持续,D believe表示相信。
  11、【答案】A However
  【解析】本题需要的是一个副词,而且位于句首,因此考察的是句关系。通过前后句意义来定答案,前一句强调的是智力是与生俱来的(inherited),而后一句则认为是可以通过脑力活动(mental effort)会有所波动,两句意义明显相反,故正确答案为A。
  12、【答案】B according to
  【解析】本题并不难,可以理解为:智力可以 脑力活动得到提升或出现波动。"代替"明显不符;"根据,通过"可以;"除……之外"也不合适;"不管,不顾"也不合逻辑,故B为正确答案。
  13、【答案】A further
  【解析】本题考察的是固定搭配:take a step ……,能搭配只有A和C,分别指"采取进一步措施"和"让到一边去",无论从逻辑上还是从句意上都是A符合。
  14、【答案】D sharpness
  【解析】本题考察的是动宾搭配:improve and regain sb’s mental ……,再根据前文一直在讲如何提高"智力",因此可以排除A(模式)和B(稳定性),C(灵活性)和D(锋利性,尖锐性)容易混淆,C有一定的干扰性,但双比之下,D更契合前文,故选D。
  15、【答案】C allows
  【解析】空格所在句的意思是说这个网络课程可以_____系统地改善你的记忆力和注意力。而且此处需要填入的动词需要与to进行搭配。根据搭配关系直接排除A,B。本文的主题介绍的是使人聪明的脑力锻炼法,感情色彩是中性的,此处的D选项force排除,所以最恰当的是D。
  16、【答案】B track
  【解析】空格所在句的意思是说这个培训课程还可以_____学习进度,并且给予详尽的信息反馈。根据语境,空格缺少的词汇意义为跟踪学习进度,分析四个选项,直接排除A hold, C order; 辨析B,D两个选项,与D选项的pace搭配的介词应该为with,即,keep pace with,所以排除,B选项为正确答案,keep track of 意思为跟踪。
  17、【答案】D on
  【解析】本题考查介词,根据空格前后语境,空格所缺少的介词意义为关于你的表现作出详细的反馈,四个选项中只有D有关于的意思。
  18、【答案】A constantly
  【解析】空格所在句的意思是说更加重要的是,它会_____调整并升级有关训练游戏。通过前后句的语境,所用词汇均为褒义词,所以,从感情色彩方面可以排除C,B习惯性的主语应该为人,直接排除。A经常的,B异乎寻常的代入,发现A比较符合题意。
  19、【答案】D build
  【解析】空格所在句的意思是说它会经常调整并升级有关训练游戏,以促进脑力的不断____。本题所缺少的动词需要与介词on 搭配,A put on 穿上,增加;B carry on 执行;C build on 在。。。基础上增加,构建;D take on 呈现;代入空格发现只有C适合,A,B,D都不与空格后面的development 相搭配。
  20、【答案】D effective
  【解析】本题涉及的是一个含不定式作后定的句子,所缺词汇为形容词修饰exercise routine,根据前后情感一致的逻辑,通过后面的不定式中的关键词increase寺和vary your muscle use等信息反推所需词汇为正向词汇,直接排除A和C,B是中性,只有D(有效的)符合逻辑,故为正确答案。
 Section II Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Text 1
  21、【答案】B encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking
  【解析】细节题。文中首段首句 "in order to "change lives for the better" and reduce "dependency…"交代了George Osborne计划的目的,即 "改善生活,减少依赖性"。这与选项B鼓励积极寻找工作是一致的。
  22、【答案】C to register for an allowance from the government
  【解析】词义题。根据本句与sign on的上一句,可以得知"求职者7天后方可得到津贴",接下来,"这段时间他们应该去找工作,不应该sign on"。可以推测出,他们不应该依赖于政府的津贴,与答案C吻合。
  23、【答案】D A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers
  【解析】细节题。根据第二段最后一句可知,句子主语what motivated him…was his zeal for "fundamental fairness"-----protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits"题干what prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme对应文中what motivated him,答案D是"his zeal for "fundamental fairness"-----protecting the taxpayer"的改写。
  24、【答案】A uneasy
  【解析】细节题。第四段首句与题干一致,轻松定位,得出losing a job is hurting,意思"丢掉工作不好,有伤害",因此得出A,uneasy
  25、【答案】D unemployment benefits should not be made conditional
  【解析】观点态度题。依据全文最后一句,作者认为现在的救济补助金是one of the least generous意思是"最吝啬的,最少的";之前又有conditional, 作者认为现在补助金是"有条件的"。综合得出答案D。
  Text 2
  26、【答案】[D] the attraction of financial rewards
  【解析】题目问的是"许多学生选择法律作为他们专业的原因是什么",文章第二段第二句讲"The best lawyers made skyscrapers –full of money , tempting ever more students to pile into law schools",意思是说"最好的律师挣很多钱,吸引更多的学生纷纷进入法律学校"。[D] the attraction of financial rewards中的attraction对应句中的tempting,financial rewards对应full of money。
  27、【答案】[D] pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
  【解析】题目问"什么增加了美国大多数州法律教育的成本",文中第三段第三句讲"在美国大多数州成为律师只有一条路径:四年不相关学科(unrelated subject)的学士学位,三年的法律学位以及通过律师资格考试昂贵的准备,这使得普通的法律毕业生债台高筑"。综合来看,时间成本很高,且本科学位专业与法律不相关,故答案为[D] pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major,其中another major对应文中的unrelated subject。
  28、【答案】[A] the rigid bodies governing the profession
  【解析】题干问"法律体系改革的障碍源自于什么"。对应于文章第四段的前二句,第一句谈到"法律体系改革",第二句讲"明智的观点(sensible ideas)已经存在了很长时间,但是主管此专业的州级层面的一些机构太保守了没能实施(too conservative to implement them)",其核心问题来自于"the state-level bodies that govern the profession",故答案为[A] the rigid bodies governing the profession。
  29、【答案】[B] bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession
  【解析】题目问"类似于行会的所有权体制被认为是限制性的,部分原因是什么",文章第五段首句讲"费用高的另外一个原因是,限制性的类似于行会的所有权体制",第二、三句对否定性的形容词restrictive进行解释,"除了哥伦比亚特区,非律师可能不会拥有法律公司的任何股份,这使得费用很高,改革缓慢",故行会一样的所有权体制被认为是限制性的,部分原因是"禁止外人进入行业",故答案为[B] bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession。
  30、【答案】[B] a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
  【解析】题干问"作者在文章中主要讨论什么",文章主要谈及美国法律行业出现的问题,即:法律教育的成本高,而改革的速度慢,末段提出了解决方案,故答案为[B] a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it。
  Text 3
  31、【答案】B a handsome reward for the researchers
  【解析】由出题的顺序性原则及题干关键词 Fundamental Physics Prize精确定位在文章第一段第三、四句。此两句主要交代了"基础物理奖"的资金来源,文章末尾主要交代了奖项设置者的目的,是"运用他们自己的财富从而引起人们对在科学领域成功人士的重视",综合文章第一段整体内容,可知此奖项是为奖励研究人员的。确定正确答案为B。
  32、【答案】C the founders of the new rewards
  【解析】由本题的题干关键词the new awards可以锁定本题的答案应该是在文章的第二段的第三行,这句话说"科学家说,新的奖项是对于那些在他们背后的人的一种自我提升的实践",这个those behind them 指的就是上文说到的创建这些奖项的企业家,所以对应的就是选项中的the founders of the new rewards,所以选C。
  33、【答案】D the demonstration of research findings
  【解析】由本题的题干关键词Higgs boson(希格斯玻色子)可以锁定本题的答案应该是在文章的第四段的倒数第三行,而关键词所在的句子非常长,也是难点之一,这句话可以先看破折号前面,说的是对于诺贝尔文学奖的共享者的认定的规定,而在破折号后面的as的定语从句是对前面句子的补充说明,举了这个Higgs boson(希格斯玻色子)的例子来说明,"如同这个希格斯玻色子所证明的那样"跟这个部分最匹配的选项就是the demonstration of research findings,所以选D。
  34、【答案】[B] their endurance has done justice to them.
  【解析】本题定位到原文第四段最后一句话,Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy. [B]中的endurance是对于原文Time的替换,justice是对于原文中legitimacy的替换。本题比较简单,直接考查对于词汇的同义替换。此种题型在考研中较常见,希望大家重视基础阶段的学习,平时养成把词汇分类记忆的习惯。
  35、【答案】[D]acceptable despite the criticism. 不管批评,而去接受。
  【解析】本题定位在文章最后一段,最后两句话it is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize –givers’ money to do with as they please. It is such gifts with gratitude and grace. 作者态度很明确。另外基础不太好的同学也可以找作者所用的情感态度词来判断,文章大量运用了"正向"词汇,比如surely a good thing; wise; with gratitude and grace.
  Text 4
  36、【答案】【A】 critical
  【解析】本题考查的是态度问题。定位至文章第一段,从文章的第一段可看出,第一句作者对报告持赞美的态度,但紧接着下一句"Regrettably, however..."可看出,作者要说的是报告的缺点。综上可看出,作者对报告的态度是批判性的,因此正确答案为A。
  37、【答案】【D】keep a leading position in liberal education
  【解析】将本题定位于第二段。由第二段"...to maintain national excellence..."可知......目的是为了保持在......方面的国民优势。其中文中的excellence对应题干中的leading, leading congressional Democratic and Republicans对应题干中的influential figures in the congress, asking对应题干中的required, to表目的。结合题支所给选项,【A】中的government以偏概全,章不但提到了政府,还有university, foundations, educator等其他人员。【B】的individuals’ right没有提到,【C】的interest在文中没涉及。综合文中内容,可得出结论,【D】项为正确选项。
  38、【答案】[C] the application of emerging technologies
  【解析】细节题。题干的意思是"该报告建议"。根据题干定位到文章第三段,同时根据题干的关键词"the report"(意思是"该报告")定位到第三段第二行。大致看下随后的句式,尤其是每句话的主语都是"the report",需要看A、B、C和D选项和文中的对应关系。根据文中论述,A项的意思是"美国历史的排他性研究",其中的"exclusive"(意思为"排除性的、排他性的")在文中并没有出现,属于无中生有。B项的意思是"加强重视理论性主题研究",其中的"theoretical" (意思为"理论性的") 在文中并没有出现,属于无中生有。C项意思是新兴科技的应用,其中的"application"(意思为"应用")对应的是第四行的"use", "emerging"对应是第四行的"new",属于正解的"同义复现",所以是正确答案。D项的意思是"为外语研究提供资金支持",文中第八行说的是"对教师和学者提供资金支持",属于偷梁换柱。
  39、【答案】[C] biased against classical liberal ideas
  【解析】情感态度题。根据题干定位文中第五段。教授们的态度主要通过两个层面体现出来的。这两个层面体现在第五段一个由while引导的长句中,理解好这个长句是解题的关键点。while之前是一个层面,while之后是一个层面。该题主要考察while之后第二个层面的理解。A项意思是"支持自由市场",是对第二个层面的误读。B项的意思是"关于公共政策持保守态度"是对第二个层面的误读。C项的意思是"对自由理念持有偏见",是对第二个层面的极好总结。D项意思是"对知识性调查持谨慎态度"是对第二个层面的误读。
  40、【答案】[B] Illiberal Education and the "The Heart of the Matter"
  【解析】主旨题。该题需要学生为该文章加上一个题目,考察学生对文章的主旨的概括。首先,通过浏览该题的5个题干以及每个段的段首句,可以总结出该文章探讨的主要对象是"由AAAS发布的报告",同时每个段落的进一步探讨主要集中于该报告展现出来教育的非自由性主题,其中该报告的代称为"问题的核心"。C项 "非自由性教育与问题核心"正好和文章主旨相匹配。A项意思是"抓住问题核心的方法",其中方法文中并未提及。C项意思是"AAAS报告对自由性教育的贡献",与文章主旨相违背。D项意思是"进步性政策对自由性教育",其中的"政策"并非文章的重点,故排除。
  Part B
  41、【答案】C How do archaeologists know where to find…
  【解析】
  在阅读所有选项,找出每个段落的关键词后我们会发现,C答案首句提出一个问句"地面上什么都看不到,考古学家如何知道去哪找想要找的东西?",这是比较常见的英文篇章结构之一:提出问题——分析问题——解决问题,由此可推知,选项C应该放在文章的开头。
  42、【答案】F Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered…
  【解析】
  选项A首句提到"some archaeological sites", 选项F 在首句同样出现了该表达,由此可知这两个选项在讨论同一话题,应该放在一起。除此之外,选项A说考古遗址是"easily observable",而F选项说这个过程需要"take years",在语义上是转折,而F选项首句出现了表达转折关系的连词"however",故A为正确答案。
  43、【答案】G Ground surveys allowed archaeologists to pinpoint…
  【解析】
  E选项的首句出现了表示总述的"survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques"。从第二句开始都在分别列举具体的方法。另外,段尾处的"aerial surveys"与G选项首句中的"ground surveys"形成了呼应,均是寻找考古遗址的具体方法。因此,G为正确答案。
  44、【答案】D Surveys can cover a single large settlement…
  【解析】
  选项D和B中均有表示时间的线索词,应该放到一起。此外,剩下的两段开头都有明显的特征词,选项D第二句出现"in one case",而选项B 段首出现"in another case",这两段明显形成语义上的衔接,D中"one"表示泛指,应该放在前,由此可知,该题选D。
  45、【答案】B In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million…
  【解析】解析见44题。
 Section III Translation
  46、【参考译文】这就是为什么当我们尝试用语言来描述音乐时,我们能做的只是清楚的表达对音乐的反应,却不能领会音乐的精髓。
  47、【参考译文】据大家所说,贝多芬是个思想自由而且有勇气的人,而且我发现勇气是理解他作品的必要因素,更不用说演奏他的作品了。
  48、【参考译文】贝多芬表演时习惯把音量提至顶点,然后骤然转到柔和的篇章,这是他前辈的音乐家很少有的习惯。
  49、【参考译文】尤其重要的是他对自由的看法,在他看来这和个人的权利和责任有关,而且还他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。
  50、【参考译文】人们会将贝多芬的很多作品解释为——痛苦是难免的,但是与痛苦抗争的勇气使生活有价值。
 Section IV Writing
  51、
  【参考范文】
  Dear Mr. President,
  I am a student of our university. I am writing this letter to bring forward multiple and effective suggestions to our college students about how to improve their body health.
  Initially, exercising, though not a student’s first priority in his/her daily life, should be stressed by all of us as well as our university, not only because it is vital to our physical health but mental health as well. Furthermore, developing a regular and healthy diet, which provides vitamins and other nutrients to our body, would, to some extent, undoubtedly benefit our body.
  I hope that you will find my suggestions useful and propagandas be launched among the students.
  Yours sincerely,
  Li Ming
  52、
  【参考范文】
  As we can see, filial piety is prevailing all through the two pictures: in the first frame, an amiable mother is supporting her little daughter while in the second frame, her daughter, who has grown up, is supporting her aged mother instead.
  What a happy family full of precious love! The implication conveyed in these two pictures is self-evident: we need to show our concern and respect to our parents. However, most of us fail to do this job. First of all, as our lifestyle gallops along, we are less likely to hold enough awareness on our filial piety. As young men who deem the career as the priority, they often choose to migrate with their jobs, work around the clock and rest with the work files, leaving parents in empty-nests. Besides, many people are used to substituting their care for parents with money or gifts. While it is beyond dispute that material support can improve ones’ living standards, what those aged people need most is the mental satisfaction and love from their children such as a simple call, a short being back home.
  It is easy to draw this conclusion that, to our parents, nothing can be better than the filial piety from children. Whenever possible, we should gather around the table for a "reunion dinner" with our parents; whether busy or not, we need to give our parents a call and tell them we are fine. Only with the sense our filial piety can our parents lead a really happy life.
更多考研复习资料,详见思远福大考研网http://www.fzuky.com/program.asp
 

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